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Global Warming. Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the Sun’s energy cobasatulagi.gq by: 4. IJGW provides a vehicle to help professionals, academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and policymakers, working in the fields of energy, environment, and sustainable development with a primary focus on bringing local and global solutions to global warming and its global changes, to disseminate information and to learn from each other's work. Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science Article · Jul 9, We are pleased to announce the publication of a new research article, “Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science” in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of.


Global Warming Scholarly Article | Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change | Global Warming


Sign Up to receive Our Latest Updates! Global warming scholarly articles had turned on a dime, for only a few years earlier global cooling had been their mantra, global warming scholarly articles. Now warming is the specter, with its melting glaciers, inundated cities, and the Gulf Stream reversing course. But I doubt if the enviros can keep on fomenting the scare much longer.

It has been based on little more than extrapolated temperatures and spurious charts. What are the facts? Surface temperature measurements show a global warming period from about tofollowed by a cooling period until Since then we have experienced a slight warming trend.

These three periods add up to a surface-temperature increase of perhaps one-degree Fahrenheit for the entire 20th century. Satellite measurements of atmospheric temperatures do not agree, however. They began only in global warming scholarly articles, and have shown no significant increase over the last quarter century.

Balloon readings did show an abrupt, one-time increase in Since then, those temperatures have stabilized. Environmentalists believe that the 20th-century warming was caused by human activity, primarily the burning of fossil fuels. This makes the escape of heat into outer space slightly more difficult than its initial absorption from sunlight. This is the Greenhouse Effect. So the Earth warms up. But whether man-made carbon-dioxide emissions have caused measurable temperature increases over the last 30 years is debated.

Carbon dioxide is itself a benign and essential substance, incidentally. Without it, plants would not grow, and without plant-life animals could not live.

Any increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes plants, trees, global warming scholarly articles, and forests to grow more abundantly. The surface data global warming scholarly articles that man-made carbon dioxide has not in fact increased global temperatures.

From toglobal warming scholarly articles, coal-fired plants emitted fumes with great abandon and without restraint by Greens. Yet the Earth cooled slightly in that time. And if man-made global warming is real, atmospheric as well as surface temperatures should have increased steadily.

There was merely that one-time increase, possibly caused by a solar anomaly, global warming scholarly articles. Build a tarmac runway near a weather station, and the nearby temperature readings will go up. Global warming became the focus of activism at the time of the Earth Summit in Rio, in Bush the elder signed a climate-change treaty, with signatories agreeing to reduce global warming scholarly articles dioxide emissions below levels.

The details were worked out in Kyoto, Japan. The date had been carefully chosen. Emissions in Germany and the Soviet Union were still high; Germany had just absorbed East Germany, then still using inefficient coal-fired plants. The same was true for the Soviet Union. After its collapse, ineconomic activity fell by about one-third. As for France, most of its electricity comes global warming scholarly articles nuclear power, which has no global-warming effects but has been demonized for other reasons.

If the enviros were serious about reducing carbon dioxide they would be urging us to build nuclear power plants, but that is not on their agenda. They want windmills whether or not they global warming scholarly articles golden eagles. Under the Kyoto Protocol, U. We were expected to reduce energy use by about 35 percent within ten years, which might have meant eliminating one-third of all cars.

You can see why the enviros fell in love with the idea. Third World countries are exempt, as are China and India. Australia, like the U. Thirty-five countries, mostly in Europe, have agreed to reduce emissions. But there are no enforcement mechanisms, the potential for cheating is unlimited, and the principal irritation today is that the main enemy, the United States, slipped the noose.

Any unusual event is now likely to be linked global warming scholarly articles climate change. Climate experts warned today that tsunamis could become more common around the world and more dangerous.

They cite a number of factors, including a creeping rise in sea levels believed to come from global warming and growing populations along coastal areas. The claim that the globe is warming depends on knowing earlier temperatures.

Such information can only be obtained indirectly. Climate scientists depend on tree rings, bore holes, ice cores, the skeletons of marine organisms, global warming scholarly articles.

The graph that was most effective in persuading policy-makers became known as the hockey stick. The temperature line is mostly horizontal, perhaps declining slightly for years, global warming scholarly articles, then abruptly heading up into a warmer range over the last years. The years are the handle, the last hundred are the blade. It was immediately used by the United Nations to promote the idea that we have an unprecedented crisis on our hands.

But the chart also aroused suspicions, because for years there had been a broad agreement among climatologists that global temperatures had not been as unvarying as the chart implied.

Both periods lasted for several hundred years. The warmer period, accompanied by a flowering of prosperity, knowledge, and art in Europe, seems to have been wholly beneficial.

Agricultural yields increased, marshes and swamps—today called wetlands— dried up, removing the breeding grounds of malaria-spreading mosquitoes. Infant mortality fell, the population grew. Greenland was settled by the Vikings, who reached a peak of prosperity in the 12th and 13th centuries.

They began declining in the late 14 th century, with the colder weather. Then the settlements perished. The warm period has global warming scholarly articles recognized in the climate textbooks for decades, and it was an obvious embarrassment to those claiming that the 20th-century warming was a true anomaly. Also, the earlier changes occurred when fossil-fuel consumption could hardly have been the culprit.

They would prove that warming could occur without human intervention. Inhe published a paper in the journal Sciencereviewing the evidence showing that bore hole data showed a warming of about one degree Celsius in North America over the last to years.

With the publication of the article in ScienceI gained significant credibility in the community of scientists working on climate change. They thought I was one of them, someone who wouldpervert science in the service of social and politi cal causes. So one of them let his guard down.

Once doomsayers convince us that we are experiencing something new, they feel free to claim that we face a catastrophe. They can extrapolate from the minor and beneficial warming that we may or may not have experienced in the last generation and argue that temperatures will keep on rising until the ice caps melt and cities flood. Then the hockey stick was challenged by a Toronto minerals consultant named Stephen McIntyre, who, remarkably, had no credentials as a climatologist.

McIntyre was joined by another Canadian, and in they published a critical article. In a rebuttal, Mann revealed new information that had not appeared in his original paper. It had been published in the British journal Naturewhich later published a correction. Mann has refused to release his secret formula. A Wall Street Journal reporter doggedly pursued the matter and contacted Mann.

Michael Mann now concedes it is plausible that past temperature variations may have been larger than thought.

In his recent book State of FearCrichton unexpectedly emerged as a powerful critic of modish conclusions about global warming. He studied the subject for a couple of years before writing his recent hook, to which he added an appendix comparing global-warming science to eugenics. Earlier, in a speech at Caltech, he had compared it to the search for extraterrestrials which he says is based on bogus science.

There may have been some warming as a part of a natural trend, Crichton allows. They have become a special interest like any other, global warming scholarly articles, with legislative goals and millions spent on lobbying. In Washington, skeptics like himself are outnumbered by global warming advocates perhaps by a margin of to one. Some environmentalists have begun to echo the complaint that they are a special interest. Kristof wrote in the New York Times.

In effect, it was a cry of anguish: Why have we been unable to win on our top issues, especially global warming? The problem was that their science was never very good to begin with. And as its inadequacies became more apparent, their scare tactics became more apparent, too. To keep the money rolling in, environmentalists always need a crisis. It looks as though they will have to cook up a new one. Subscribe Login Logout Edit Account.

About Authors Events Contact Submissions. Politics Americana. Blog Donate. Hot Off The Press. A Further Perspective. He had it made in the shade, said my complacent conservative friends. The result was brutal.

 

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global warming scholarly articles

 

Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science Article · Jul 9, We are pleased to announce the publication of a new research article, “Discussing global warming leads to greater acceptance of climate science” in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of. Vital Signs of the Planet: Global Climate Change and Global Warming. Current news and data streams about global warming and climate change from NASA. IJGW provides a vehicle to help professionals, academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and policymakers, working in the fields of energy, environment, and sustainable development with a primary focus on bringing local and global solutions to global warming and its global changes, to disseminate information and to learn from each other's work.